Do a TEFL course or not bother?

Originally posted on Simple English ~ Nicola Prentis:

I’ve seen this argument come up a few times in various places over the last few weeks, mostly in the Facebook teaching groups I joined when I was promoting the pre-conference survey Russ and I did. And then, there it was again on ELTjam.


A lot of ELT people feel really strongly that anyone doing an online teaching course with no practical component is insulting the industry and every professional in it. Not to mention doing the students a huge disservice.

I have the Trinity TESOL and an MA in ELT – self funded. Whenever anyone asks me what course I recommend they do, I always ask them where they want to go and teach. And, maybe, how long they plan to stay in teaching. (My personal advice being make sure you have a get-out after two years because you can only grow old, poor and pensionless in ELT).

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How to write a TEFL CV

Originally posted on Recipes for the EFL classroom:


Part of my job involves teacher recruitment and therefore I’ve seen a good number of CVs over the years. Very few of the CVs have stood out, and many have been, quite frankly, terrible!

Some facts about CVs

Recruitment websites tell us that an employer on average spends anywhere between 5 seconds and 30 seconds to scan your CV, so you need to make an impact, fast.

Research cited by the Huffington Post here highlights that employers spend 80% of their brief review examining the following 6 key elements of a CV:

  1. Your name
  2. The current company you work for
  3. Your previous employment
  4. The start and end dates of your current position
  5. The start and end dates of your previous position
  6. Your educational background


A TEFL CV is not so different from a regular CV: it should include all the usual features you would expect. Ensure it…

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Strapped for cash

This is a very quick post about a lesson I did a few times today and it worked really well.

It is aimed at C1 level students and above and is based around an article from the BBC, which you can find here: Debt campaigners tear up student loans

The article is about a group of activists who bought second-hand student debt in America and paid it off. In doing so, they highlighted the huge amount of people in serious debt due to paying university fees and the fact that many people remain in debt, way into their 70′s.

I started the lesson by asking the students to discuss what they knew about going to university in both the U.S and the U.K. After getting feedback and comparing both countries systems to the current Spanish system, the topic of money and fees came up and this led nicely into the article.

I simply asked the students to read the article and when they had finished they had to talk about three things with their partner;

Something that surprised you

Something that scared you                      in/about the article

Something that made you angry


This led to some really good discussion, as well as the article providing lots of good vocabulary and interesting collocation.

I hope you enjoy the lesson and it proves useful. If you have any comments or questions please feel free to leave them below.

There goes the fear

Like most people in the UK, and also those further afield, I have been watching the recent Scottish referendum vote with great interest. For me it encapsulated everything that is good and bad about politics. It was played out across social media and 24hr news channels, with every man or woman and his or her dog throwing in their two pennies worth. Yet the outcome was, for me at least, a huge disappointment. Not least because I think it was a huge opportunity to give politics and Westminster a huge kick up the backside but more depressingly because the result was never going to be anything but a ‘No’ vote. In my opinion, the media, the entire English political establishment and many others worked together to paint such a bleak picture of an independent Scotland that fear gripped those undecided voters and tipped the balance in favour of making sure everything remained exactly the way it was, because lets face it, nobody likes change. Russell Brand puts it much more eloquently than I do here - How Westminster Fear & Media Bias Shafted Scotland

Well, I want to change something! I want to be the metaphorical ‘Scotland of the ELT world’, as it were. My proposal is a change to the current pre-service courses that are presently on offer. Maybe even a radical overhaul, one that sees a three stage process for trainee teachers. The first stage being a period of study before attending the second practical stage(the CELTA/Trinity cert as we know it today) which would need to be extended in length and a final post qualification stage which would be a standardized, across the board, professional development course. Therefore we would be looking at a much longer course, which incorporates trainee reflection, more intensive and extensive language awareness, a more thorough assessment and more time in the classroom.

I know this is a big ask. I expect a lot of resistance from many different areas. I certainly don’t have all the answers yet. What I intend to propose will not be summed up in a few blog posts. This thing will take time, therefore patience is required. The push for Scottish independence took years of painstaking hard work to get together and while I don’t envisage such a long time frame for this project, I don’t expect it to come together any time soon.

I don’t think I need to explain why I want this change to come about. My previous posts have, I hope, expressed my feelings on the matter. Yet, I would like to draw your attention to a talk given at the 2014 IATEFL conference by James Pengelly, called Rethinking communicative language teaching. (click the link for the Brainshark video and talk) James talks about the need to rethink how teachers are trained and how we view the way we teach. Towards the end of the talk, James speaks about the assumptions of newly qualified teachers and delivers this damning view;

“If a CELTA trainee is taken out of the course and straight into the classroom, with the assumptions and beliefs about language teaching instilled in them from teacher training courses, then what we’re doing is selling a deficient product. We are putting a teacher in front of a classroom, who is not ready to teach.”


I strongly urge you to take the time to watch the talk. James can be found on twitter @hairychef and also check out his website

My final thought for this post is to quickly draw your attention to a simple survey I posted in August. It asked whether people would like to see the topic of Pre-service courses debated and discussed at IATEFL 2015. The response wasn’t amazing, but 15 people took the time to register their opinion and these were the results;

No 53.33%  (8 votes)    Yes 46.67%  (7 votes) 
Total Votes: 15
 Now look at the official results from the Scottish independence vote. (
Yes or no Votes Percentage
Yes check.svg Yes 1,617,989 44.7%
X mark.svg No 2,001,926 55.3%

Okay, okay, I’m perhaps grasping at straws and it takes a big leap of imagination but I hope the comparison highlights what I believe to be a huge fear factor in ELT towards change, similar to what we witnessed in Scotland. I envisage this to be the biggest obstacle I will face when taking on this project.

I will leave it there for now and as always I welcome any comments you may have. I will endeavour to reply as soon as possible.

An alternative UK, pre-service, second language teacher education course

This post is designed to continue the conversation I started before the summer about ways to change, and possibly improve, the current pre-service courses offered in ELT.

Below is a paper by Mike Chick, who kindly sent me his work to read and subsequently gave me permission to republish it here on my blog. Mike has just completed a PhD on pre-service prep of TEFL teachers and he describes this paper as, “part of the first few years’ thinking and research. I have basically been looking at the pedagogical / theoretical arguments for what constitutes a “rounded” ELT pre-service education.

I found the paper very interesting and hope you will too. Please feel free to comment and if you would like to contact Mike directly his email is

An alternative UK, pre-service, second language teacher education course

By Mike Chick, UK


This is a key moment for TESOL teacher educators. There is growing theoretical support for the notion that second language teacher education (SLTE) needs to become more focussed on teacher thinking and prior beliefs rather than on the mastery of particular techniques or approaches (See Borg 2006; Johnson 2009; Burns & Richards 2009). Demand for qualified teachers of English continues to rise across the globe while at the same time employability is becoming increasingly important to those responsible for taking decisions about the future of UK higher education. With these factors in mind, the traditional, one-month, intensive TESOL course found, for example, in the UK and the USA, may no longer be the only player in town.

Short and long courses

Qualifications in the field of TESOL have often been separated into courses which deal with teacher training and courses which deal with teacher education (Richards 1990). Ever since John Hayward’s first crash course fifty years ago, the most popular entry level TESOL teacher qualification in the UK and USA has been a certificate awarded for successful completion of a four-week, intensive teacher training course. This is a type of introductory programme which emphasises the acquisition of a set of core teacherly actions, skills and activities. Conversely, qualifications offered by universities, typically TESOL Masters’ degrees, have traditionally focussed on teacher education. The students on such programmes, usually teachers who have had some experience of classroom life, have customarily been taught through modules based around teaching methodology, SLA research findings, English for Specific Purposes, and so on.

Both training and education courses have been criticised by commentators. For example, Bolitho (2009: 3) highlighted the “classroom survival” aim of intensive training courses, pointing out that there is little time to promote reflective practice on such programmes. Conversely, on most university teacher education programmes practical, pedagogical skills have traditionally played little or no part in the syllabus (Wallace 1991; Bartels 2005). Such programmes have been accused of being too far removed from classroom life and some studies report student dissatisfaction with the amount of theory they have to contend with on their TESOL education modules (Badger, McDonald & White 2001).


Short-term, often four week, TESOL training courses are a hugely popular method of entry into the world of English language teaching. They are, by far, the most common route into teaching EFL for UK practitioners and, indeed, provided me with my first language teaching qualification. The practical, hands-on approach to learning teaching through the adoption of contemporary methodological procedures results, more often than not, in glowing feedback from those trainees who manage to successfully complete one of the most intensive months of their life.

Although it was nearly two decades ago, I still remember being thrilled to realise that teaching and learning did not have to be passive, laborious or mundane. Rather, language and teacher learning could be something centred on the students, involving interaction and engagement. I, like a great many others, learnt a lot from my four weeks of initial teacher training. What I didn’t see at the time was that I had neither the opportunity to reflect on the thinking behind the communicative approach endorsed nor the time to reflect on the efficacy or transferability of the techniques being promoted.

Experience, age and further study have taught me that during my first few years in EFL, I was probably learning far more about teaching than my students were learning about communicating in English. I have become painfully aware of how little I knew then and how much I have changed as a teacher since those early days. That initial course certainly opened up my eyes to a wonderful world of learning, different from my own experience of formal education. However, it hadn’t really prepared me to be an effective, rounded teacher, as no course of such a length ever possibly could.

How then, should an initial teacher training programme go about producing teachers who are “adaptive experts” (Johnson 2009:10)? And how can SLTE best equip its novice teachers to flourish in a ‘post methods landscape’. (Kumaravadivelu 2006)

One obvious answer lies in creating a longer pre-service teacher preparation programme. After all, as language teachers around the world will testify, in many countries where English is not the native language, to become qualified as an English language teacher in a state school often requires the undertaking of courses far longer than the one month that is standard for native speakers. TESOL and TEFL have long struggled to be seen as professions, many viewing the initial qualification as a cheap ticket to travelling the world rather than as a route to a fulfilling career. Ferguson and Donno (2003) suggest that, for the perception of English language teaching by native speakers to change, the period of teacher preparation must be made considerably longer.

An alternative?

The course of SLTE at the university where I teach takes three years. It involves trainee teachers taking two TESOL related modules in each year of their degree programme along with four other modules that contribute to their main or major award, usually an English or a modern foreign language (MFL) degree. UK university students must take six modules in each year of their degree course. This means that for our learner teachers, one third of their degree, or approximately four to six input hours in each week of their three year university study, is concerned with developing knowledge and skills pertaining to TESOL.

The first year involves developing the students’ language awareness through the study of grammar and lexis, along with an introduction to English phonology and its relevance to language teaching. There is emphasis on classroom teaching techniques in the second year, with various teaching methods and approaches introduced and made real for the students through a module devoted to peer teaching. Throughout their final year, students observe experienced language teachers and are also responsible for planning and delivering teaching practice sessions to English language learners. In addition, they undertake various reflective activities designed to help them articulate and justify their teaching decisions.

Next, I’d like to discuss some of the most common concerns regarding pre-service SLTE and describe how an extended course of preparation may be effective in overcoming these.

Concern 1 – Assessment

Most short term courses base assessment on skills that the trainee can be seen to display e.g. the presentation of a language point, clear instruction-giving, or managing a lesson at an effective pace. Researchers such as Hobbs (2013) believe that such a performance-based approach to teacher assessment may inhibit adaptive expertise. Others suggest that it may well lead to early stagnation in teachers who come to believe the skills they have learnt are now applicable in all contexts and are sufficient for a career in language teaching (Diaz Maggioli 2012). In other words, a tick box approach can give the impression that there is a right and wrong way to teach, independent of socio-contextual factors or learner differences that experienced teachers know are crucial elements in effective decision-making. This simplification of the knowledge and skills base of language teaching is the point that Murray (2009: 26) highlights in arguing that a prescriptive, competency-based approach to teacher education fails to capture the essential elements of what a teacher can know and judge.

These are not simple issues to grapple with but on a longer teacher education course, a greater weighting of the assessment can be given over to the development of a broader knowledge base. For example, more time can be spent on discussing the value of SLA research and its links with approaches to teaching or on raising trainees’ awareness of how language is used.

Portfolio work can provide the means by which learner teachers demonstrate their understanding of these issues. Such document collections are also helpful in allowing the learner teachers to articulate their own evolving theories regarding what constitutes effective teaching and learning. The documents provide space for the trainees to make connections between the coursework and the classroom and thus assist the learner teachers in bridging the practice-theory gap.

Concern 2: Opportunities for reflection

The importance of reflection in developing expertise in teaching is acknowledged in both TESOL and mainstream education (Wallace 1991). For this reason, much criticism has been levelled at brief, initial training courses that don’t or can’t allow trainees sufficient opportunities to reflect on their teacher development.

For example, Gray (2004:26) makes the case that allocating time to exploring the reasoning and justification behind decision-making or to undertaking collaborative work and research projects is vital to teacher learning but often not possible when time is lacking. Schedule constraints mean that educators in this position often have to opt for “quick fix” solutions of giving advice rather than engaging in exploratory, productive discussion. Shapiro (2007) supports such sentiments stating that short term TESOL courses are “…underpinned by the assumption that the education of teachers is about the transfer of knowledge and skills from expert to novice rather than the more democratic and active construction of meaning”. She outlines how meaningful development occurs when reflection is connected to an examination of prior beliefs and learning along with critical analysis of classroom practice and theory and argues that short-term courses allow little or no time for such learning.

On longer courses of pre-service teacher preparation, time can be given, for example, to post-observation feedback conferences conducted in a collaborative, exploratory manner. Rather than the transmission of top tips or hasty advice, a spirit of dialogic inquiry can be fostered with the aim of using the feedback discussions to mediate a deeper understanding of the complex nature of language learning and teaching. This form of dialogic mediation is seen by theorists such as Johnson (2009) as a core component of learning since it can act as a catalyst for the development of teacher thinking.

Reflective tasks such as journal writing can also be designed to move trainees’ thinking beyond a concern for the mastery of prescribed basic skills. They can encourage the teachers to think critically about their own beliefs and behaviours e.g. how their own experience of error correction as language students compares to the approach they choose to take in their teaching practice.

Concern 3: Knowledge

There is little space in a crammed timetable to address the various theories of language learning, the most common approaches and methods of language teaching or the principles underlying classroom practices. Furthermore, developing an adequate sense of language awareness in learner teachers must also be neglected on short courses. (Hobbs 2013).

Without this developed sense of language awareness, teachers may well be incapable of responding to classroom events as they unfold and so fail to maximise the learning potential of episodes that arise spontaneously. Indeed, many commentators view the ability to react to such events as key tenets of expert teaching (Malderez and Wedell 2007; Meddings & Thornbury 2009). However, integral to being able to successfully react to the varied, complex and dynamic situations that English language teachers encounter is access to a knowledge base that provides the tools necessary for teachers to arrive at sound decisions. Malderez and Wedell (2007: 24-25) state clearly: “There can be little point in knowing about things and knowing how to do things if you cannot actually use this knowledge / these skills in the right place and at the right time to support learning”

A longer pre-service course can go some way to addressing the issues described above. Time can be devoted to increasing learner teachers’ awareness of language through modules on grammar, lexis and phonology. Areas such as collocation, idiomatic language, modality, formality, synonymy, the phonemic alphabet and so on can all be addressed in the early stages of a longer TESOL teacher development course. In the second and third years of pre-service education the learner teachers can develop familiarity with a range of teaching approaches and techniques. Providing the space to discuss and reflect on repeated peer teaching episodes allows the students to gain an understanding of both the subject and the procedural knowledge that is central to good teaching. But perhaps most crucially, it also provides the trainees with the tools to begin theorising their own practice.

The Pre-service TESOL teacher preparation discussed here, embedded in undergraduate education, provides a course that combines the training and education approaches outlined at the start of this article.

However, frequent challenges emerge resulting from logistical and contextual constraints and realities. For example, the coordination of the timetables of trainees and language learners from across the university is an annual problem. Student engagement and aptitude can also limit the success of the tasks and discussions – regardless of how excited and motivated the educators may be about the syllabus they have devised. It is also a fact that not all students are equally passionate about English language teaching, with the result that a number elect to opt out of the teaching module that takes place in their final year. As in most contexts, common ground also has to be reached with regard to the divergent beliefs and values of the teacher educators involved. Moreover, with no concrete evidence as to how languages are most effectively taught and learned yet available to language teacher educators, the approach can hardly claim to provide ‘the’ answer as to how SLTE should be best conducted.

Much contemporary SLTE research has taken a socio-cultural perspective on learning (Burns & Richards, 2009) with areas of focus such as teacher cognition and the social construction of knowledge closely linked to the concerns outlined above. Given the continued global demand for professional, competent teachers of English, along with the direction that universities are taking towards promoting the employability of their graduates, I hope that this model of SLTE can act as a spur for others. Finally, I believe this article illuminates some of the ways in which a longer course aligns itself with key characteristics that Wright (2010) identifies as emerging in SLTE pedagogy.

  • An emphasis on the student teacher learning to teach and becoming a thinking
  • The programming in to teacher education courses of a great deal of reflective activity on learning experiences.
  • The above also entails a commitment to student teacher inquiry into one’s own beliefs and narratives and into the professional contexts of teaching and learning for which student teachers are being prepared.
  • The appropriation of pedagogies from mainstream adult education whose central idea is learning from experience (e.g. Kolb 1984).

This article was first published in the Teacher Training Journal, 2013.


Badger, R., McDonald M. & White A. (2001). Changing values: what use are theories of language learning and teaching? Teaching & Teacher Education.

Bartels, N. (ed.) (2005). Applied Linguistics and Language Teacher Education. Springer.

Bolitho, R. (2009). Reconceptualising Language Teacher Education and Development in a Changing World. EAQUALS international conference, Istanbul 25/04/09. Available from: (accessed 10/06/2013)

Borg  S. (2006). Teacher Cognition and Language Education. Continuum.

Burns, A. & Richards, J (Eds.) (2009) The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education. Cambridge University Press.

Diaz Maggioli, G. (2012). Teaching Language Teachers: Scaffolding Professional Learning. R & L Education (Plymouth UK).

Ferguson, G. & Donno, S. (2003). One-month teacher training courses: Time for a change? ELT Journal 57/1: 26-33.

Gray, C. (2004). Exploring the language teacher’s mind: Helping student teachers see beneath the surface. Language Learning Journal, 29, 23‐31.

Hobbs, V. (2013). “A basic starter pack”: the TESOL Certificate as a course in survival. ELT Journal 67/2: 163-174.

Johnson, K.E. (2009). Second Language Teacher Education: A Sociocultural Perspective.


Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliff, NJ (1984)

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding Language Teaching: From Method to Postmethod. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Malderez, A.  & Wedell. (2007). Teaching Teachers: Processes and Practices. Continuum

Meddings, L. & Thornbury, S. (2009). Teaching Unplugged: Dogme in English Language Teaching. Delta

Murray, J. (2009). Teacher competencies in the post-method landscape: The limits of competency-based training in TESOL teacher education in: (accessed 11/06/2013)

Richards, J. C. (1990). The dilemma of teacher education in second language teaching.  In: Richards, J. C. &  Nunan, D., Eds., (1990). Second language teacher education. Cambridge University Press

Shapiro, S. (2007) TESOL certificate programs: Time to start practicing what we teach? (2007). TEIS Newsletter.22.1:

Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training Foreign Language Teachers: A Reflective Approach. Cambridge University Press

Warford, M. (2011). The zone of proximal teacher development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27/2: 252–258.

Wright, T. (2010). Second language teacher education: Review of recent research on practice. Language Teaching 43, 259-296.

The Author

Since 1994, Mike Chick has worked as a teacher and teacher trainer in Estonia, Spain, South Korea, Greece and the UK. He is the award leader for the BA (Minor) in TESOL at the University of South Wales and is external examiner for TESOL degrees at Swansea and Wolverhampton University. At present, he is working towards a PhD in Second Language Teacher Education.




This will be my last post on the subject of the effectiveness of CELTA/Trinity cert as pre-service courses, before I go on holiday.

Firstly, I wanted to highlight two articles worth reading related to this discussion. The first, being the second article that Willy Cardoso recommended. The full title is below.

‘A basic starter pack’: the TESOL Certificate as a course in Survival
Valerie Hobbs
ELT Journal Volume 67/2 April 2013

The second is an old PDF file of an article by Phillip Kerr, who did some research into the CELTA course in 1996 after it underwent a change in syllabus. His findings are very interesting and worth 15 minutes of your time.

Finally, I wanted to propose an idea and get peoples general feeling on this with a quick poll here on the blog.

In my last post I summarised an article by Gibson Ferguson and Sarah Donno. At the beginning of their article they mention a conference that took place in 1993 to debate the CTEFLA course and potential changes to the course. This caught my eye and I began wondering whether at the next IATEFL it would be possible to get together a Panel discussion on the issue of Pre-service courses. Looking at ways of improving both what happens before attending the course and potential ways of implementing more rigorous and widespread post CELTA training and development. The idea and abstract are still in the early stages and to get to my point, I would first like to get a general consensus from you, the reader, on whether it would be a debate you would like to see happen at IATEFL and would anything be gained from this topic being debated further.

So please take a quick look at the poll and let me know what you think.

No title

With time on my hands and the urge to continue and practise my writing, I wanted to provide a summary of an article I read as part of the background reading for the previous two posts.

This particular article was recommended by Willy Cardoso and its full title is below.

One-month teacher training courses: time for a change?
Gibson Ferguson and Sarah Donno
ELT Journal Volume 57/1 January 2003, Oxford University Press

The article in general, is concerned not with the “syllabus (of the CELTA) or it’s delivery … but rather at the concept of a one-month initial training course, and whether, given the changed circumstances of much EFL teaching, it still remains … the optimal route of entry into EFL teaching.” (Ferguson, G and Donno, S 2001) The article then goes on to deal with four changes in EFL that the authors have highlighted as having a significant impact on the pre-service training courses.

1) changes in teacher supply
2) changed views regarding the position of the native speaker in English language teaching
3) developments in EFL methodology
4) developments in the theory and practice of teacher training

The first change finds the authors drawing a comparison between the nine month PGCE initial training course that all teachers must complete in the UK, and the one month TEFL course. Here, the state vs Private sector is mentioned and of course the difference in hours spent in the classroom on teaching practice, 15 weeks vs 6-8 hours, respectively. The article points out this is perhaps an unfair comparison given the differing teaching contexts and “socioeconomic circumstances” (ibid) of the two courses, but it does well to highlight the gulf in training and therefore the potential quality of the teaching expected from the trainee on completion of the course. This then reflects upon the whole TEFL community as being somewhat sub-standard and the authors echo what I mentioned in my first post on this subject about how teaching English as a foreign language is perceived by the public. “One wonders also whether the very shortness of the initial TEFL teacher training may play an unhelpful role in constructing a public image of TEFL as a craft which is easy to enter and to pursue, provided one is a native speaker and has the right kind of personality.” (Ibid)

The focus of the second change is on the “privatised position of the native speaker”(ibid) and how this helps to fossilize “a form of linguistic imperialism” (ibid), a claim which is perhaps now being challenged by the emergence and support for English as a Lingua Franca. Secondly, the authors claim, and quite rightly so, that non native speakers are actually at more of an advantage, in that they have already been through the process of learning the language that they are teaching, they are therefore “better placed to understand the problems of the learner”. (Ibid) Finally, the native speakers proficient grasp of the language allows course providers to use this as an excuse to limit the amount of language awareness that is provided on the course. Unfortunately, as the article states, “it threatens to undercut claims to a professional basis for EFL teaching because it is sometimes claimed that one of the defining characteristics of a profession is mastery of a body of distinct, specialised knowledge.” (ibid)

The discussion of non-native speakers was raised in the comments for my first blog on this issue, and has been an area of some contention in the EFL community for awhile now. It is saddening to hear stories of non-native speakers I know, who have been asked to change classes on the basis that the client feels the need to have a native speaker in order for them to sound more native. It is interesting to me that students would choose to concentrate on sounding more native like, in terms of pronunciation, rather than work on more important areas, such as holding simple conversations and sustaining more complex discourse. I wonder where this need came from?

Methodology is the concern in the third major change. The authors state that, “We live in ‘the post-method age’, and there is no theoretical consensus for any one methodology.” (Ibid) A claim which I am inclined to agree with, yet they go on to say, “To some degree this is already reflected in the CELTA syllabus (UCLES 1998) which does not recommend the adoption of any one teaching or formula – such as P-P-P, for example.” While It is true that the syllabus does indeed suggest this, I am not convinced that this is in fact the truth, when actually applied to what happens when a course is delivered. This idea in fact clashes with what Lewis claims in the Lexical approach when he says, “the basic teaching paradigm is based on present-practice-produce. This is a convenience for trainers, allowing them to breakdown the teaching and learning sequence into steps for individual trainees.” (Lewis, M 1993) Here, I am inclined to agree with Lewis, especially from my own experience and from having spoken to other teachers who have passed through their pre-service training in a large variety of different countries. Yet, I believe that this would be a good area for some solid research in order to find out just what method(s) are employed on pre-service courses.

Teacher development, or lack of it, takes centre stage for the final major change featured in the article. Citing changes in UK governmental policy in the 90s, which shifted towards a more practical and hands on training policy, it seems as though the CELTA course seemed to fit in perfectly with the new educational landscape what with its emphasis on practical skills and classroom experience. The lack of theoretical content was countered by the the claim that, “they (pre-service courses) are but a stepping stone to subsequent post-experience professional development in the form of the Diploma course.” (Ibid) The DELTA of course, goes into much more theoretical depth concerning both teaching and learning and has recently been granted Masters level status, as of this year.
Unfortunately for the authors, this claim does not sit easy and they set about deconstructing it. Firstly, pointing out “that only about 10% of CELTA graduates actually go on to obtain the diploma.” (Ibid) Secondly, many teachers simply leave the profession after using the qualification as a way of funding their travels around the world, usually after a couple of years. Finally, and most depressingly, “Further numbers remain in ELT but gain no additional qualifications. For those people, initial training is the only training they will ever receive.” (Ibid) This is blamed upon poor support for professional development in schools once teachers are in their first teaching position and that the majority of teachers, ” somehow muddle through and grow professionally, a few do not.” (Ibid)

In conclusion the authors offer five key areas for further consideration:

1) “To the see the course extended in length and made more rigorous despite the the greater cost for trainees this would entail.”

2) “An increased focus on awareness of different teaching contexts, for a greater recognition of realities of the work situation”

3) “Increased attention to language learning as opposed to teaching”

4) “Further work on explicit language awareness”

5) ” A compulsory period of post course supervised practice prior to final certification.”

Despite the fact that this article was published 13 years ago, I believe that the major points featured here are entirely relevant to today’s current situation. Moreover, I wholeheartedly agree with the conclusions the authors have made and I feel this is reflected in the previous two posts on this subject.

At the very end of the article it is mentioned that the authors had begun a research project to investigate some of these questions. Through limited research, I have not been able to discover any more on this or the authors themselves, so if anyone can point me in the right direction, your help would be gratefully received.


Lewis, M The Lexical Approach, 1993′ Language Teaching Publications